Radiocarbon dating the shroud of turin
After a painstaking comparison of hundreds of paintings, frescoes and mosaics with the face on the Shroud,[Above (enlarge): Positive photograph of the Shroud face, with Vignon markings numbers 1-15 superimposed. Compare the above sketch showing the 15 Vignon markings with this photograph of the Shroud face, which is what artists looking at the Image of Edessa/Shroud directly would have seen.]Vignon identified 20 such oddities (reduced by Ian Wilson to a more certain 15 - see below), most of which artistically made no sense, including imperfections in the Shroud's weave, but were repeated slavishly by Byzantine artists from the 5th to the 12th century. Confirmation that the artists were copying the Shroud is evident in that they were trying to make sense of a negative image, for example open staring eyes which were actually closed in death, of which they could have had no concept, the camera using negative film not having been invented until the 19th century. [B]Vignon paid particular attention to a topless square (Vignon marking (2) above) on the 8th-century Christ Pantocrator in the catacomb of Pontianus, Rome Artistically it made no sense, yet it appears on [Above (enlarge): Bust of Christ Pantocrator from the catacomb of Pontianus, Rome.
Note in particular the Vignon marking on this 8th century fresco: "(2) three-sided [topless] `square' between brows." See "c.
710".]other Byzantine Christ portraits, including the 11th century Christ Pantocrator in the dome of the church at Daphni, near Athens,[Above (enlarge): Christ Pantocrator mosaic in the church at Daphni, Greece.]has 13 of the 15 Vignon markings. the three-sided, or topless square) are stylized having been rendered more naturalistic by a competent artist.
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